Anxiety

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users.
Corroon J, Phillips JA.
2018
Cannabidiol
Survey
CBD is mostly used against pain, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression
A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect
Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Acute use of cannabis may reduce anxiety and depression
Association of cannabis use with the development of elevated anxiety symptoms in the general population: a meta-analysis
Twomey CD.
2017
Cannabis
No relevant association between cannabis use and anxiety in the general population
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans.
Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, Yogan K, Gupta V, Redman E, Curran HV, Morgan CJ
2013
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of fear extinction in humans.
Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.
Rabinak CA, Angstadt M, Sripada CS, Abelson JL, Liberzon I, Milad MR, Phan KL.
2012
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC prevented the recovery of fear in this experiment of extinction learning.
Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series.
Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S.
2019
Cannabidiol
CBD may be helpful in anxiety disorders according to a case series
CBD may be helpful in anxiety disorders according to a case series
Cannabis use behaviors and prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Canadian medicinal cannabis users.
Turna J, Simpson W, Patterson B, Lucas P, Van Ameringen M.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis may be helpful in anxiety disorders according to large survey
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients.
Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schröder N, Nardi AE, Martín-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA.
2011
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Cannabidiol significamtly reduced anxiety.
Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images.
Ballard ME, Bedi G, de Wit H.
2012
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC renders fearful faces less fearful
Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy.
Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.
Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report.
Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE.
2011
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD reduces anxiety in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder.
Single-dose study of nabilone in anxious volunteers.
Glass RM, Uhlenhuth EH, Hartel FW, Schuster CR, Fischman MW.
1981
Nabilone
Controlled study
Antianxiety effects in 2 of the 8 subjects
Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep
Piper BJ et al.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Patients who use cannabis reduce their use in medications for pain, anxiety, migraine and sleep disorders
The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety.
Fabre LF, McLendon D.
1981
Nabilone
Controlled study
Dramatic improvement in anxiety
Madison Wright, Patricia Di Ciano, Bruna Brands
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study reviews clinical evidence and pre-clinical evidence of the use of CBD in treating anxiety. Eventhough the study concludes CBD to be a possible novel treatment for those with anxiety it also states the lack of research carried out thus far on female animals and humans. Most trials have been carried out on male participants which leaves questions on the possibilities of different outcomes for female participants in the future.

Asthma

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A longitudinal study of cannabis use increasing the use of asthma medication in young Norwegian adults.
Bramness JG, von Soest T.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Smoking of cannabis may be a risk factor for asthma
Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects.
Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM.
1974
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Smoked marijuana and oral THC caused significant bronchodilation of at least 2 hours duration.
Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects.
Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW.
1977
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC effective in healthy subjects and 3 asthmatic subjects; aerosol caused bronchoconstriction in 2 asthmatic subjects
Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients.
Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD
1976
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
significant broncholdilation with THC; faster action of salbutamol but both drugs equivalent at 1 hour
Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects.
Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
moderate bronchodilator action in healthy subjects; no difference to placebo in asthmatics
Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma.
Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE
1975
Cannabis
Controlled study
after experimental induction of acute bronchospasm prompt correction of the bronchospasm with cannabis

Alzheimer's disease

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Dronabinol for the treatment of agitation and aggressive behavior in acutely hospitalized severely demented patients with noncognitive behavioral symptoms.
Woodward MR, Harper DG, Stolyar A, Forester BP, Ellison JM.
2014
Delta-9-THC
Open study
A treatment with oral THC was associated with significant decreases in agitation, as well as improvements in sleep duration and appetite.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for night-time agitation in severe dementia
Walther S, Mahlberg R, Eichmann U, Kunz D
2006
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Reduction in night-time agitation in actigraphy and in the neuropsychiatric inventory NPI
Open-label study of dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study
Ross JS, Shua-Haim JR
2003
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Significant reduction of agitation
Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis Oil for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: An-Open Label, Add-On, Pilot Study.
Shelef A, Barak Y, Berger U, Paleacu D, Tadger S, Plopsky I, Baruch Y.
2016
Cannabis
Open study
Following aspects significantly decreased: Delusions, agitation/aggression, irritability, apathy, and sleep and caregiver distress
Tetrahydrocannabinol for neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
van den Elsen GA, Ahmed AI, Verkes RJ, Kramers C, Feuth T, Rosenberg PB, van der Marck MA, Olde Rikkert MG.
2015
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No reduction in NPS by low-dose THC (3x1.5mg), though it is well-tolerated
Treating non-cognitive symptoms of people with dementia
Science Daily
2018
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Nabilone improves agitation and other behavioural symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation.
Passmore MJ.
2008
Nabilone
Uncontrolled case report
Dramatic reduction in the severity of agitation and other behavioural symptoms

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial
Cooper RE, Williams E, Seegobin S, Tye C, Kuntsi J, Asherson P
2017
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Cannabis reduced symptoms of ADHD in a small clinical study
Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial
R.E. Cooper, E. Williams, S. Seegobin, C. Tye, J. Kuntsi, P. Asherson
2016
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Cannabis may be helpful in the treatment of ADHD

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Co-medication with Cannabidiol May Slow Down the Progression of Motor Neuron Disease: A Case Report
Nahler G.
2017
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabidiol slowed progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a case report
Safety and efficacy of nabiximols on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease (CANALS): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.
Riva N. et al.
2018
Controlled study
Cannabis is effective in spasticity due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Appetite loss/weight loss

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring.
Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M.
2008
Nabilone
Open study
Significant improvement of pain
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJ
2012
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis administration was associated with significant increases in plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not significantly influence insulin levels
A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia.
Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F
1994
Delta-9-THC
Open study
increase of appetite in 13 patients
Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife
Jin LZ, Rangan A, Mehlsen J, Andersen LB, Larsen SC4, Heitmann BL
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use during adolescence not associated with weight in midlife
Anorexia of aging in long term care: is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant? - a pilot study.
Wilson MM, Philpot C, Morley JE
2007
Delta-9-THC
Open study
A trend towards weight gain
A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa.
Gross H, Ebert MH, Faden VB, Goldberg SC, Kaye WH, Caine ED, Hawks R, Zinberg N
1983
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
no significant difference between THC and diazepam
Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.
Foltin RW, Fishman MW, Brady JV.
1986
Cannabis
Controlled study
The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake.
[Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern.
Gottschling S.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea
Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group
Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T.
2006
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No difference between cannabis, THC and placebo
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.
Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC improved taste and appetite
Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study.
Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B.
2002
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
megestrol acetate was superior to THC
Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW
2007
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and cannabis caused an increase in caloric intake and weight
Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection.
Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P
1992
Delta-9-THC
Open study
weight gain
Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T
1990
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Patients continued to loose, but the weight loss decreased in all groups; appetite and mood increased
Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T.
1990
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Dronabinol stimulated mood and appetite
Dronabinol - eine mögliche neue Therapieoption bei COPD-Patienten mit pulmonaler Kachexie [Dronabinol, a possible new therapeutic option in patients with COPD and pulmonal cachexia]
Bergmann K-C
2005
Delta-9-THC
Open study
On average 1,5 kg of weight gain and increase of walking distance
Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus.
Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL
2008
Delta-9-THC;Nabilone
Open study
Improvement of appetite and reduction of nausea and vomiting by nabilone and dronabinol (THC)
Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG.
1993
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Trends toward weight gain, improved appetite, decreased symptom stress
Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study.
Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M.
2010
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Tolerance developed to the appetite-increasing effects of THC.
Efficacy and Safety of Appetite-Stimulating Medications in the Inpatient Setting
Howard ML, Hossaini R, Tolar C, Gaviola ML.
2018
Delta-9-THC
Open study
No difference on reduced appetite between THC, megestrol and mirtazapine
Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory.
Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF.
1988
Cannabis
Controlled study
Increases in body weight during periods of active marijuana smoking were greater than predicted by caloric intake alone.
Improving Quality of Life With Nabilone During Radiotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Côté M, Trudel M, Wang C, Fortin A.
2015
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone did not reduce pain and nausea in patients treated for head and neck cancer.
Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia.
Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV
1997
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Tendency to stable weight for 7 months
Marijuana Use in HIV-Positive and AIDS Patients: Results of an Anonymous Mail Survey
Sidney S.
2001
Cannabis
Survey
22.4 % used cannabis for medicinal purposes
Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO
1976
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
weight gain with THC; weight los with placebo
Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.
Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG
1991
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Significant weight gain
The Impact of Δ9-THC on the Psychological Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study
Avraham Y, Latzer Y, Hasid D, Berry EM
2017
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC may improve symptoms of anorexia nervosa
The effect of nabilone on appetite, nutritional status, and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Turcott JG, Del Rocío Guillen Núñez M, Flores-Estrada D, Oñate-Ocaña LF, Zatarain-Barrón ZL, Barrón F, Arrieta O
2018
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone improved appetite in cancer patients in a controlled clinical study
The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. The DATRI 004 Study Group. Division of AIDS Treatment Research Initiative.
Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G
1997
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
weight loss with THC, weight gain with megestrol acetate
THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D
2007
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC improved appetite and weight and reduced nausea

Bacterial Infections

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Laura Daniela Martinenghi, Rie Jønsson, Torben Lund, Håvard Jenssen
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study looks at the effect of CBD and CBDA on Gram-positive bacteria and the ability of the cannabiniods to kill such bacteria. The study concluded overall that CBD, more so than CBDA, displayed strong antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive strains and could potentially be used as an alternative treatment for MRSA.

Bipolar disorders

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood.
Sagar KA, Dahlgren MK, Racine MT, Dreman MW, Olson DP, Gruber SA.
2016
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis showed beneficial effects in bipolar disorder
Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood
Sagar KA, Dahlgren MK, Racine MT, Dreman MW, Olson DP, Gruber SA.
2016
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may be helpful in bipolar disorder
Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, Engh JA, Jónsdóttir H, Simonsen C, Friis S, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Andreassen OA.
2010
Cannabis
Survey
In bipolar disorder subjects, cannabis use was associated with better neurocognitive function, but the opposite was the case for the schizophrenia subjects.
The effect of extreme marijuana use on the long-term course of bipolar I illness: a single case study.
El-Mallakh RS, Brown C.
2007
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis decreased the number of depressed days and increased the number of hypomanic days.
The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research.
Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB.
1998
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
A number of patients find cannabis (marihuana) useful in the treatment of their bipolar disorder

COVID-19

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Chelsea L Shovercorresponding author and Keith Humphreys
2020
Cannabidiol
Review / Editorial
This study focuses on the absence of any evidence of the use of cannabis compounds to treat COVID-19. Although the lack of research exists companies have still continued to promote CBD products as a treatment for the virus.

Cancer

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Andrea M. Tomko, Erin G. Whynot, Lee D. Ellis, Denis J. Dupré
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study positively highlights cannabis compounds as a therapeutic treatment for patients undergoing cancer treatment such as chemotherapy by aiding symptoms like nausea, insomnia and pain. It is also identified as a drug that can increase a patient's appetite and act as a single treatment for multiple symptoms rather than multiple prescriptions which could combat eachother. However 'chemotherapeutic resistance', hard to reach tumours and the effects of other common therapies pose a threat to the success of the cannabis compounds ingested. It is as all others note, important that further trials be completed before solid evidence of the potential of cannabis compounds can be clarified.
Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring.
Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M.
2008
Nabilone
Open study
Significant improvement of pain
A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
no significant reduction of the number of vomiting, volume of emesis, degree of nausea, or duration of nausea
A multi-institutional Phase III study of nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A.
1982
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone is an effective antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with chlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, Stuart F, Sangster G, Kaye S, Charlton D, et al.
1983
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
0.5 mg levonantradol was a more effective antiemtic than 25 mg chlorpromazine
Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy.
Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Calder IT, Moran F.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Symptom scores were significantly better for patients on nabilone for nausea, retching and vomiting.
Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG, Kalman LB, Groshen S
1984
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Poorer antiemetic control and more side effects with dronabinol than with the metoclopramide, both better than placebo
A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues.
Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, Harding M, Kerr DJ, Soukop M, Kaye SB.
1988
Nabilone
Open study
Metoclopramide/dexamethasone superior to nabilone/prochlorperazine
Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE Jr, Harwood S, Franklin R, Cohen MH.
1985
Delta-9-THC;Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Levonantradol appears to be at least as effective an antiemetic as THC ; well-tolerated side-effects.
A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy.
Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M.
1982
Nabilone
Controlled study
Severity of nausea and number of vomiting ejections and dry retching episodes were significantly less under nabilone.
A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia.
Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F
1994
Delta-9-THC
Open study
increase of appetite in 13 patients
A population-based case-control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Liang C, McClean MD, Marsit C, Christensen B, Peters E, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
Subjects who used cannabis had a reduced cancer risk.
Cannabinoids in the management of intractable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain.
Sutton IR, Daeninck P.
2006
Nabilone
Survey;Uncontrolled case report
Significant improvement in one case of intractable neuropathic pain and one case of refractory cinv
Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group
Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T.
2006
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No difference between cannabis, THC and placebo
Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy.
Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to alizapride.
Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and haloperidol equally effective
Cannabis Impacts Tumor Response Rate to Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced Malignancies.
Taha T, Meiri D, Talhamy S, Wollner M, Peer A, Bar-Sela G.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may have negative effects on cancer therapy if given together with immunotherapy
Case Report: Clinical Outcome and Image Response of Two Patients With Secondary High-Grade Glioma Treated With Chemoradiation, PCV, and Cannabidiol.
Dall'Stella PB, Docema MFL, Maldaun MVC, Feher O, Lancellotti CLP.
2019
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
CBD may increase the effects of chemotherapy and radiation in glioblastoma according to case reports
[Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern.
Gottschling S.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea
Cannabinoid receptor expression in estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent endometrial cancer.
Ayakannu T, Taylor AH, Konje JC.
2018
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabinoid receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment or prevention of endometrial cancer
Dronabinol Treatment of Refractory Nausea and Vomiting Related to Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.
Hernandez SL, Sheyner I, Stover KT, Stewart JT.
2015
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC may be very effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in end-stage cancer.
Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J
1991
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
prochlorperazine better than THC, both drugs combined better than both alone
Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC 15 mg was the most effective against vomiting, prochlorperazine was the most effective antinauseant
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo.
Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connell MJ, Schutt AJ, Schwartau NW
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and PCP equally effective; both better than placebo; THC produced psychic effects in 82%
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Simon RM, Rosenberg SA.
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
14 of 15 patients had decreased vomiting and nausea
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo
Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
dronabinol superior to placebo (P<.01 for difference between groups at days 1 and 8 independently)
Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis.
Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun DW Jr, Young CW.
1980
Nabilone
Controlled study
Both nabilone and prochlorperazine produced antiemetic effects
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.
Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC improved taste and appetite
Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study.
Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B.
2002
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
megestrol acetate was superior to THC
Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T
1990
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Patients continued to loose, but the weight loss decreased in all groups; appetite and mood increased
Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T.
1990
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Dronabinol stimulated mood and appetite
Dronabinol for the Treatment of Paraneoplastic Night Sweats in Cancer Patients: A Report of Five Cases.
Carr C, Vertelney H, Fronk J, Trieu S.
2019
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
THC may reduce night sweats in cancer patients
Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials.
Musty RE, Rossi R.
2001
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Open study
Cannabis caused symptom relief in 70-100%, dronabinol caused symptom relief in 76-88%
Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R
1988
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC decreased nausea and vomiting in 23 of 36 (64%) patients
Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V.
2007
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol was as effective as ondansetron in reducing nausea and vomiting. Combination therapy was not more effective.
Improving Quality of Life With Nabilone During Radiotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Côté M, Trudel M, Wang C, Fortin A.
2015
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone did not reduce pain and nausea in patients treated for head and neck cancer.
Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol).
Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D
1997
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
patients was treated with several antiemetic drugs, but it was not until dronabinol was added that the nausea and vomiting stopped
Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
1988
Cannabis
Open study
Marijuana effective as antiemetic agent
Impact of Medical Cannabis on Patient-Reported Symptoms for Patients With Cancer Enrolled in Minnesota's Medical Cannabis Program.
Anderson SP, Zylla DM, McGriff DM, Arneson TJ.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cancer patients report symptom relief by cannabis
Medical Cannabis Use in Glioma Patients Treated at a Comprehensive Cancer Center in Florida.
Reblin M, Sahebjam S, Peeri NC, Martinez YC, Thompson Z, Egan KM.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Many patients with brain cancer use cannabis
Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel.
Engels FK, de Jong FA, Sparreboom A, Mathot RA, Loos WJ, Kitzen JJ, de Bruijn P, Verweij J, Mathijssen RH.
2007
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis did not influence the pharmacokinetics of the two anti-cancer drugs
Medical Cannabis Use by Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients: Experience of a Single Center
Sarid N. et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma may profit from a treatment with cannabis
Many cancer patients use cannabis in Canada
Martell K, Fairchild A, LeGerrier B, Sinha R, Baker S, Liu H, Ghose A, Olivotto IA, Kerba M.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Many cancer patients use cannabis in Canada
Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial.
Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM
1987
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone effective as antiemetic drug for children
Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study.
Crawford SM, Buckman R.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
No difference between nabilone and metoclopramide
Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Even for young children nabilone is an effective antiemetic, superior to domperidone.
Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD.
1981
Nabilone
Controlled study
Sixty patients (75 per cent) reported nabilone to be more effective than prochlorperazine for relief of nausea and vomiting.
Nabilone for the treatment of paraneoplastic night sweats: a report of four cases.
Maida V.
2008
Nabilone
Open study
Significant improvement of night sweats within 2 days
Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farré M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellà D.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients refractory to other medications
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Patients were remarkably free of adverse physiologic effects.
Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis.
Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to domperidone
Prospective analysis of safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in large unselected population of patients with cancer
Bar-Lev Schleider L et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis is effective in alleviating symptoms of cancer patients
Patterns of Use of Medical Cannabis Among Israeli Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience.
Waissengrin B, Urban D, Leshem Y, Garty M, Wolf I.
2015
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use “is perceived as highly effective” by some patients with advanced cancer.
Relationship of Cannabis Use to Patient-Reported Symptoms in Cancer Patients Seeking Supportive/Palliative Care.
Donovan KA, et al.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Many cancer patients treated themselves with cannabis
Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A
1984
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
9 patients no preference; 7 preferred oral THC, 4 preferred marijuana cigarettes (double-blind, double dummy crossover study)
[Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin][Article in French]
George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone, in comparison with chlorpromazine did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting, but most patients preferred nabilone.
Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO
1976
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
weight gain with THC; weight los with placebo
Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-grade Synthetic Cannabidiol
Kenyon J, Liu W, Dalgleish A.
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
Cannabidiol may be useful in the treatment of cancer according to an observational study
Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, Furnas B, Williams SD, Leigh SA, Dorr RT, Moon TE.
1979
Nabilone
Controlled study
When both drugs were compared, both nausea and vomiting episodes were significantly lower in patients given nabilone.
Striking lung cancer response to self-administration of cannabidiol: A case report and literature review.
Sulé-Suso J, Watson NA, van Pittius DG, Jegannathen A.
2019
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
CBD and a strong effect on a patient with lung cancer
The Prevalence of Nonprescription Cannabinoid-Based Medicines in British Children's Hospices: Results of a National Survey.
Tatterton MJ, Walker C.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Many families use cannabis oil for their children in British hospices
The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care.
Bar-Sela G, Vorobeichik M, Drawsheh S, Omer A, Goldberg V, Muller E.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
In an open clinical study with cancer patients all symptoms improved significantly.
The effect of nabilone on appetite, nutritional status, and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Turcott JG, Del Rocío Guillen Núñez M, Flores-Estrada D, Oñate-Ocaña LF, Zatarain-Barrón ZL, Barrón F, Arrieta O
2018
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone improved appetite in cancer patients in a controlled clinical study
THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient--the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference.
Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K.
1985
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
nausea reduction was the main determinant of preference between THC and prochlorperazine
The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG.
1980
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
tetrahydrocannabinol given by mouth has an antiemetic effect of approximately the same order as thiethylperazine and metoclopramide

Children / Behaviour / Intellectual Disability

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Daryl Efron,corresponding author Kaitlyn Taylor, Jonathan M Payne, Jeremy L Freeman, Noel Cranswick, Melissa Mulraney, Chidambaram Prakash, Katherine J Lee, and Katrina Williams
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study is not complete but is a planned pilot study for the investigation into CBD use for children with intellectual disability and associated severe behavioural issues.

Central Nervous System

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Fabrizio Calapai, Luigi Cardia, Emanuela Elisa Sorbara, Michele Navarra, Sebastiano Gangemi, Gioacchino Calapai, Carmen Mannucci
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study focuses on the 'blood-brain barrier' and the passage of cannabiniods into the brain. This area of research is important for the potenial use of cannabiniods like THC and CBD for the treatment of Central Nervous System diseases. The results conclude CBD as a promising drug for CNS diseases as 'drug resistance is less likely to develop than THC.

Cancer (ovarian)

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Ana I. Fraguas-Sánchez, Ana I. Torres-Suárez, Marie Cohen, Florence Delie, Daniel Bastida-Ruiz, Lucile Yart, Cristina Martin-Sabroso  and Ana Fernández-Carballido
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
CBD was successfully enclosed in PLGA nanoparticles which were of a suitable size to be internalized by cancer cells. CBD in solution was released slowly during this process 'from an extended period of four days'. This study shows promise for the method of PLGA nanoparticles in administering CBD intraperitoneally in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Cancer (breast)

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Lázaro García-Morales, Aída M Castillo, José Tapia Ramírez, Horacio Zamudio-Meza, Ma del Carmen Domínguez-Robles, Isaura Meza
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study confirms the use of CBD in reverting the transition of 'epithelial' cells to 'mesenchymal' cells which means a cell becomes invasive and migratory in the body. This occurs when inflammation is present in the body and in the context of this study when cancer occurs in the breast. CBD was confirmed to reprogramme invasive cells back to their epithelial state.

Cancer chemotherapy

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial With Extension Using an Oral Mucosal Cannabinoid Extract for Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG.
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Five patients tended to respond to a treatment with cannabis
Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE Jr, Harwood S, Franklin R, Cohen MH.
1985
Delta-9-THC;Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Levonantradol appears to be at least as effective an antiemetic as THC ; well-tolerated side-effects.
A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs. prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy.
Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M.
1982
Nabilone
Controlled study
Severity of nausea and number of vomiting ejections and dry retching episodes were significantly less under nabilone.
A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues.
Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, Harding M, Kerr DJ, Soukop M, Kaye SB.
1988
Nabilone
Open study
Metoclopramide/dexamethasone superior to nabilone/prochlorperazine
Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG, Kalman LB, Groshen S
1984
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Poorer antiemetic control and more side effects with dronabinol than with the metoclopramide, both better than placebo
Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy.
Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Calder IT, Moran F.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Symptom scores were significantly better for patients on nabilone for nausea, retching and vomiting.
A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with chlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, Stuart F, Sangster G, Kaye S, Charlton D, et al.
1983
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
0.5 mg levonantradol was a more effective antiemtic than 25 mg chlorpromazine
A multi-institutional Phase III study of nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A.
1982
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone is an effective antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
no significant reduction of the number of vomiting, volume of emesis, degree of nausea, or duration of nausea
Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy.
Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to alizapride.
Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and haloperidol equally effective
Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J
1991
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
prochlorperazine better than THC, both drugs combined better than both alone
Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC 15 mg was the most effective against vomiting, prochlorperazine was the most effective antinauseant
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo.
Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connell MJ, Schutt AJ, Schwartau NW
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and PCP equally effective; both better than placebo; THC produced psychic effects in 82%
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Simon RM, Rosenberg SA.
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
14 of 15 patients had decreased vomiting and nausea
Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis.
Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun DW Jr, Young CW.
1980
Nabilone
Controlled study
Both nabilone and prochlorperazine produced antiemetic effects
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo
Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
dronabinol superior to placebo (P<.01 for difference between groups at days 1 and 8 independently)
Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V.
2007
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol was as effective as ondansetron in reducing nausea and vomiting. Combination therapy was not more effective.
Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials.
Musty RE, Rossi R.
2001
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Open study
Cannabis caused symptom relief in 70-100%, dronabinol caused symptom relief in 76-88%
Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R
1988
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC decreased nausea and vomiting in 23 of 36 (64%) patients
Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol).
Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D
1997
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
patients was treated with several antiemetic drugs, but it was not until dronabinol was added that the nausea and vomiting stopped
Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E.
1988
Cannabis
Open study
Marijuana effective as antiemetic agent
Medical Cannabis Use by Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients: Experience of a Single Center
Sarid N. et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma may profit from a treatment with cannabis
Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel.
Engels FK, de Jong FA, Sparreboom A, Mathot RA, Loos WJ, Kitzen JJ, de Bruijn P, Verweij J, Mathijssen RH.
2007
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis did not influence the pharmacokinetics of the two anti-cancer drugs
Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial.
Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM
1987
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone effective as antiemetic drug for children
Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study.
Crawford SM, Buckman R.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
No difference between nabilone and metoclopramide
Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Even for young children nabilone is an effective antiemetic, superior to domperidone.
Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD.
1981
Nabilone
Controlled study
Sixty patients (75 per cent) reported nabilone to be more effective than prochlorperazine for relief of nausea and vomiting.
Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farré M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellà D.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients refractory to other medications
Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis.
Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to domperidone
Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A
1984
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
9 patients no preference; 7 preferred oral THC, 4 preferred marijuana cigarettes (double-blind, double dummy crossover study)
[Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin][Article in French]
George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone, in comparison with chlorpromazine did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting, but most patients preferred nabilone.
Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, Furnas B, Williams SD, Leigh SA, Dorr RT, Moon TE.
1979
Nabilone
Controlled study
When both drugs were compared, both nausea and vomiting episodes were significantly lower in patients given nabilone.
THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient--the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference.
Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K.
1985
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
nausea reduction was the main determinant of preference between THC and prochlorperazine
The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG.
1980
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
tetrahydrocannabinol given by mouth has an antiemetic effect of approximately the same order as thiethylperazine and metoclopramide

Depression

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A naturalistic examination of the perceived effects of cannabis on negative affect
Cuttler C, Spradlin A, McLaughlin RJ
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Acute use of cannabis may reduce anxiety and depression
A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users.
Corroon J, Phillips JA.
2018
Cannabidiol
Survey
CBD is mostly used against pain, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression
Cannabis use and the course and outcome of major depressive disorder: A population based longitudinal study.
Feingold D, Rehm J, Lev-Ran S
2017
Cannabis
Open study
No association between cannabis use and depression
Does morning affect contribute to daily Cannabis use?
Testa M, Wang W, Derrick JL, Brown WC, Collins RL.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use increases positive affect and reduces anxiety
Depression and marijuana use disorder symptoms among current marijuana users
Dierker L, Selya A, Lanza S, Li R3, Rose J
2018
Cannabis
Survey
People with depression more often use cannabis
Depression and anxiety among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids and medical marijuana
Feingold D, Brill S, Goor-Aryeh I, Delayahu Y, Lev-Ran S
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Depression is higher in pain patients receiving opioids compared to those receiving cannabis
Zsolt Gáll, Szidónia Farkas Ákos Albert, Elek Ferencz, Szende Vancea, Melinda Urkon, and Melinda Kolcsár
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study performed on rats shows the reversal of the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression after three weeks of CBD treatment but the study also concludes that further confirmation of these results is necessary.
Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy.
Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.
Marijuana use and major depressive disorder are additively associated with reduced verbal learning and altered cortical thickness.
Radoman M, Hoeppner SS, Schuster RM, Evins AE, Gilman JM.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may have negative effects on young people with depression
Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO
1976
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
weight gain with THC; weight los with placebo
Serum Endocannabinoid and Mood Changes after Exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.
Meyer JD, Crombie KM, Cook DB, Hillard CJ, Koltyn KF.
2019
Controlled study
Endocannabinoids contribute to the mood improving effects of exercise in patients with major depression
Sex Differences in the Association Between Cannabis Use and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Canadians.
Halladay JE, Boyle MH, Munn C, Jack SM, Georgiades K.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use may be associated with an increased risk of suicide
Trends of major depressive episode among people with cannabis use: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2015.
Carrà G, Bartoli F, Crocamo C.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Heavy cannabis use is more likely associated with depression

Digestion/Gastrointestinal Disorder

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Vicente Martínez, Amaia Iriondo De-Hond, Francesca Borrelli, Raffaele Capasso, María Dolores del Castillo, and Raquel Abalo
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study combines data available from pre-clinical research and clinical evidence which shows the high therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids in treating GI tracts affected by disease. It is also noted from this review of research that the food industry may be next to include cannabinoids in their products to aid GI tract function.

Dependency/withdrawal

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A Survey of Cannabis Acute Effects and Withdrawal Symptoms: Differential Responses Across User Types and Age.
Sexton M, Cuttler C, Mischley LK.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Differences between medical and recreational cannabis users with regard to withdrawal
Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Hurd YL, Spriggs S, Alishayev J, Winkel G, Gurgov K, Kudrich C, Oprescu AM, Salsitz E.
2019
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD reduces craving in drug-abstinence individuals with heroin dependency according to clinical study
Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal
Hindocha C. et al.
2018
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD may be helpful in tobacco dependency
Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report.
Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, Queiroz RH, Bergamaschi M, Chagas MH, Zuardi AW.
2013
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
They were no major withdrawal symptoms.
Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs: A dispensary-based survey of substitution effect in Canadian medical cannabis patients.
Lucas P, Reiman A, Earleywine M, McGowan S, Oleson M, Coward M, Thomas B.
2013
Cannabis
Survey
Many patients substitute cannabis for alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs
Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs
Reiman A.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
40 % use cannabis to substitute for alcohol, 26 % to substitute for illegal drugs
Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome.
Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR.
2006
Cannabis
Open study
Moderate cannabis use had a positive effect of retention rates and abstinence from cocaine
Cannabis as a Substitute for Alcohol: A Harm-Reduction Approach
Mikuriya TH
2004
Cannabis;Nabilone
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis is a successful substituent of alcohol
Crack heads and roots daughters: The therapeutic use of cannabis in Jamaica.
Dreher M.
2002
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis was the most effective and readily available therapy to quit cocaine use
Cannabis substitution. An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism.
Mikuriya TH
1970
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Marijuana consumption may help to decrease alcolholic intake.
Dronabinol for the treatment of cannabis dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Levin FR, Mariani JJ, Brooks DJ, Pavlicova M, Cheng W, Nunes EV
2011
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC caused significant improvement in treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms.
DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal syndrome: Demographic and clinical correlates in U.S. adults
Livne O., Shmulewitz D., Lev-Ran S., Hasin D.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis withdrawal syndrome is found in 12% of frequent users
Exploring the association of legalisation status of cannabis with problematic cannabis use and impulsivity in the USA.
Destrée L, Amiet D, Carter A, Lee R, Lorenzetti V, Segrave R, Youssef G, Solowij N, Yücel M.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
The status of legalisation in US states has no effect on problematic cannabis use
Falling rates of marijuana dependence among heavy users.
Davenport S.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
The risk of dependence formation among heavy cannabis users in the USA declined in the past 15 years
Greater risk for frequent marijuana use and problems among young adult marijuana users with a medical marijuana card.
Tucker JS, Rodriguez A, Pedersen ER, Seelam R, Shih RA, D'Amico EJ.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Adolescents, who are allowed to use medical cannabis, use cannabis more often
High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis.
Socías ME, Wood E, Lake S, Nolan S, Fairbairn N, Hayashi K, Shulha HP, Liu S, Kerr T, Milloy MJ.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Drug addicts have higher retention to opioid replacement treatment if they use cannabis
Intentional cannabis use to reduce crack cocaine use in a Canadian setting: A longitudinal analysis
Socías ME et al.
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use reduced crack use
Impact of Cannabis Use during Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance Treatment.
Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Weinstein SP, Van Bockstaele EJ.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
Objective ratings of opiate withdrawal decreased in patients using cannabis during stabilization
Impact of cannabis use during stabilization on methadone maintenance treatment.
Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Weinstein SP, Van Bockstaele EJ.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
Symptoms of opiate withdrawal decrease in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, who use cannabis.
Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.
Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.
2005
Cannabis
Survey
Only low efficacy of cannabis in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms
Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex.
Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Nasser J, Bennett A, Zubaran C, Foltin RW.
2004
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC abolished withdrawal symptoms
Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: a randomized clinical trial
Allsop DJ, Copeland J, Lintzeris N, Dunlop AJ, Montebello M, Sadler C, Rivas GR, Holland RM, Muhleisen P, Norberg MM, Booth J, McGregor IS
2014
Cannabis
Controlled study
Sativex had no relevant long-term effect on cannabis dependence
Sex Differences in the Association Between Cannabis Use and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Canadians.
Halladay JE, Boyle MH, Munn C, Jack SM, Georgiades K.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use may be associated with an increased risk of suicide
Safety of oral dronabinol during opioid withdrawal in humans
Jicha CJ, Lofwall MR, Nuzzo PA, Babalonis S, Elayi SC, Walsh SL.
2015
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
40 mg of THC caused increased heart rate and anxiety, which made dose-reduction necessary
The effect of high-dose dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance on cannabis self-administration
Schlienz NJ, Lee DC, Stitzer ML, Vandrey R
2018
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
High doses of oral THC reduced intake of inhaled THC
The prescription of medical cannabis by a transitional pain service to wean a patient with complex pain from opioid use following liver transplantation: a case report.
Meng H, Hanlon JG, Katznelson R, Ghanekar A, McGilvray I, Clarke H.
2015
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
The use of cannabis reduced opioid consumption
The effects of cannabidiol on impulsivity and memory during abstinence in cigarette dependent smokers.
Hindocha C, Freeman TP, Grabski M, Crudgington H, Davies AC, Stroud JB, Das RK, Lawn W, Morgan CJA, Curran HV.
2018
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
The dose effects of short-term dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users.
Vandrey R, Stitzer ML, Mintzer MZ, Huestis MA, Murray JA, Lee D.
2013
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal.
Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil.
Labigalini E Jr, Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX.
1999
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use helped patients to quit crack use by reducing the craving symptoms
Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil.
Labigalini E, Jr., Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX.
1999
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis reduced craving and helped patients to quit cocaine
Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review.
Levin FR, Kleber HD.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
THC reduced withdrawal symptoms in cannabis dependence
White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking.
Jacobus J, McQueeny T, Bava S, Schweinsburg BC, Frank LR, Yang TT, Tapert SF.
2009
Cannabis
Open study
Brain damage was less in alcohol users who used also cannabis than in alcohol only users.
Hill KP et al.
2017
Nabilone
Open study
Nabilone reduced cannabis use in cannabis-dependent persons

Diarrhoea

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol reduces fasting motility of the colon in IBS patients with diarrhoea
Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea
Wong BS, Camilleri M, Eckert D, Carlson P, Ryks M, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR
2012
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC had no significant effects on gut transit.
Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.
Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM.
2011
Cannabis
Open study
Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly

Dystonia

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.
Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Significant improvement of symptoms
Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.
Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR
1986
Cannabidiol
Open study
20-50% improvement of dystonia; deterioration of tremor and hypokinesia in 2 patients with Parkinson's disease

Epilepsy

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A prospective open-label trial of a CBD/THC cannabis oil in dravet syndrome
McCoy B. et al.
2018
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Open study
Cannabis extract with high CBD and low THC content effective in childhood epilepsy
Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol.
Ames FR, Cridland S
1986
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
no significant effect in addition to standard medication
Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking.
Consroe PF, Wood GC, Buchsbaum H
1975
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis was able to control seizures in conjunction with phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin.
Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open-label extension study.
Thiele E, et al.
2019
Cannabidiol
CBD showed long-term efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy due to Lenox-Gastaut syndrome
Cannabis Use Disorder and Epilepsy: A Cross-National Analysis of 657 072 Hospitalized Patients
Patel RS, Mekala HM, Tankersley WE.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
The use of cannabis, tobacco and alcohol is associated with higher prevalence of epilepsy
Cannabidiol for treatment of refractory childhood epilepsies: Experience from a single tertiary epilepsy center in Slovenia
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
About half of children with epilepsy had a significant improvement following CBD treatment
Composition and Use of Cannabis Extracts for Childhood Epilepsy in the Australian Community
Suraev A. et al.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
THC and CBD content in products used for self-treatment of Australian children with epilepsy varies considerably
Cannabidiol improves frequency and severity of seizures and reduces adverse events in an open-label add-on prospective study.
Szaflarski JP, Bebin EM, Cutter G, DeWolfe J, Dure LS, Gaston TE, Kankirawatana P, Liu Y, Singh R, Standaert DG, Thomas AE, Ver Hoef LW; UAB CBD Program.
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
Large study with CBD in patients with epilepsy demonstrates good long-term safety of the medication
Cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children: the New South Wales experience.
Chen KA, Farrar M, Cardamone M, Gill D, Smith R, Cowell CT, Truong L, Lawson JA.
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
CBD effective in children with epilepsy
Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.
Hess EJ, Moody KA, Geffrey AL, Pollack SF, Skirvin LA, Bruno PL, Paolini JL, Thiele EA.
2016
Cannabidiol
Open study
cannabidiol (CBD) was shown to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy due to Tuberous sclerosis complex
Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) in the Acute and Chronic Phases.
Gofshteyn JS, Wilfong A, Devinsky O, Bluvstein J, Charuta J, Ciliberto MA, Laux L, Marsh ED.
2016
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabidiol is effective in febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in a case series
CBD-enriched medical cannabis for intractable pediatric epilepsy: The current Israeli experience.
Tzadok M, Uliel-Siboni S, Linder I, Kramer U, Epstein O, Menascu S, Nissenkorn A, Yosef OB, Hyman E, Granot D, Dor M, Lerman-Sagie T, Ben-Zeev B.
2016
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Improvement in behaviour and alertness, language, communication, motor skills and sleep
Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial.
Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, Thiele E, Laux L, Sullivan J, Miller I, Flamini R, Wilfong A, Filloux F, Wong M, Tilton N, Bruno P, Bluvstein J, Hedlund J, Kamens R, Maclean J, Nangia S, Singhal NS, Wilson CA, Patel A, Cilio MR.
2015
Cannabidiol
Open study
Cannabidiol reduces seizure frequency in epilepsy of children and young adults
Cannabis and other illicit drug use in epilepsy patients.
Hamerle M, Ghaeni L, Kowski A, Weissinger F, Holtkamp M.
2014
Cannabis
Survey
The use of cannabis did not affect disease severity in epilepsy.
Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.
Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R
1980
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
4 of the 8 CBD subjects remained almost free of convulsive crises and 3 other patients demonstrated partial improvement
Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.
Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R
1980
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
4 of the 8 CBD subjects remained almost free of convulsive crises and 3 other patients demonstrated partial improvement
Efficacy of CBD-enriched medical cannabis for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents - An observational, longitudinal study
Hausman-Kedem M, Menascu S, Kramer U
2018
Cannabis
Open study
A cannabis extract with THC and CBD reduced seizures in epilepsy
Renad Abu-Sawwa, PharmD,corresponding author Brielle Scutt, PharmD, and Yong Park, MD
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study reviews the drug Epidiolex and its application in medicine for treatment of patients with epilepsy. The study classes the approval of this drug as revolutionary for patients with epilepsy, both adults and children. Further research is advised by the researchers here for further clinical use.
Efficacy of cannabinoids in paediatric epilepsy
Ali S, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG.
2018
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD is similar effective as established antiepileptic drugs
Higher cannabidiol plasma levels are associated with better seizure response following treatment with a pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol.
Szaflarski JP, Hernando K, Bebin EM, Gaston TE, Grayson LE, Ampah SB, Moreadith R.
2019
Cannabidiol
Open study
Efficacy of CBD in epilepsy is correlated to blood levels
Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs
Gaston TE, Bebin EM, Cutter GR, Liu Y, Szaflarski JP; UAB CBD Program
2017
Cannabidiol
Open study
: CBD interacts with other anti-epileptic drugs
Long-Term Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Results from an Expanded Access Program in the US.
Sands TT, Rahdari S, Oldham MS, Caminha Nunes E, Tilton N, Cilio MR.
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
Long-term observation of children with epilepsy treated with CBD
Marijuana use in adults admitted to a Canadian epilepsy monitoring unit.
Massot-Tarrús A, McLachlan RS.
2016
Cannabis
Survey
Improvement in seizures, stress was decreased, sleep improved and memory/concentration was better
Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy? A case report and review of the literature.
Mortati K, Dworetzky B, Devinsky O.
2007
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Significant improvement of epilepsy with the use of cannabis.
Open-label use of Highly* purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes.
Devinsky O, et al.
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
CBD reduces seizures in several further childhood-onset epilepsy forms according to an open-label study
Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Multiple Doses of Pharmaceutical-Grade Synthetic Cannabidiol in Pediatric Patients with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy.
Wheless JW, et al.
2019
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD may influence the blood concentrations of antiepileptic drugs
Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy
Press CA, Knupp KG, Chapman KE
2015
Cannabis
Open study
About one third of children suffering from different forms of epilepsy experienced a more than 50 % reduction in seizures by the use of oral cannabis extracts.
Lara Senn,1 Giuseppe Cannazza,2 and Giuseppe Biagini
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study shows positive effects of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy. It details the high success rate of the first medical derived drug Epidiolex which has been described as a milestone in epilepsy research.
Report from a Survey of Parents Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol (Medicinal cannabis) in Mexican Children with Refractory Epilepsy
Aguirre-Velázquez CG
2017
Cannabis
Survey;Basic research
CBD-rich cannabis reduced seizures in children with epilepsy according to a survey
Gianluca D'Onofrio, Mathieu Kuchenbuch, Caroline Hachon-Le Camus, Béatrice Desnous, Véronique Staath, Sylvia Napuri, Dorothée Ville, Jean-Michel Pedespan, Anne Lépine, Claude Cances, Anne de Saint-Martin, Théo Teng1 Nicole Chemaly, Mathieu Milh, Nathalie Villeneuve, and Rima Nabbout.
2020
Cannabidiol
Open-label study
This study shows that slower titration of cannabidiol is more safe than previous methods for the treatment of epilepsy but while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.
Successful use of pure cannabidiol for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus.
Rajaraman RR, Sankar R, Hussain SA.
2018
Cannabidiol
CBD may be effective in refractory status epilepticus according to a case report
CBD may be effective in refractory status epilepticus according to a case report
Seizure exacerbation in two patients with focal epilepsy following marijuana cessation.
Hegde M, Santos-Sanchez C, Hess CP, Kabir AA, Garcia PA.
2012
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Patients with epilepsy were able to control their seizures by the use of cannabis.
The use of cannabidiol for seizure management in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy
Warren PP, Bebin EM, Nabors LB, Szaflarski JP
2017
Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
CBD may be effective in epilepsy due to brain tumours according to a case series
Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome
Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, Marsh E, Miller I, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Thiele EA, Wright S; Cannabidiol in Dravet Syndrome Study Group.
2017
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Cannabidiol effective against epilepsy in Dravet syndrome
Treatment with CBD in oily solution of drug-resistant paediatric epilepsies.
Pelliccia A, Grassi G, Romano A, Crocchialo P
2005
Cannabidiol
Open study
Improvement of epilepsy without side effects

Food Supplement (General)

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Luana Izzo, Severina Pacifico, Simona Piccolella, Luigi Castaldo, Alfonso Narváez, Michela Grosso, and Alberto Ritieni
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study acknowledges the reported benefits of hemp seed oil in several studies however it also questions the validity of some products chemical content and the variation amongst hemp seed oil products in terms of bioactive compounds. The researchers call for a disciplinary model to define agronomic and post-harvest management of hemp produce.

Food / Antimicrobial

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Frédérique Pasquali, Marco Schinzari, Alex Lucchi, Mara Mandrioli, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Alessandra De Cesare, and Gerardo Manfreda
2020
Cannabidiol
Review
This study looks at the preliminary data of detailing the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa - both against 'foodborne bacterial pathogens' and against microbial groups which form on naturally on food with the exception of E-Coli on which it seems to have no effect. The study identifies industrial hemp as a food preservative and for antimicrobial activity.

Gastrointestinal disorder

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Association Between Cannabis Use and Complications Related to Crohn's Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Mbachi C, et al.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may reduce complications of Crohn’s disease
Cannabis Oil Use by Adolescents and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Hoffenberg EJ, McWilliams S, Mikulich-Gilbertson S, Murphy B, Hoffenberg A, Hopfer CJ.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Many young patients with irritable bowel syndrome use cannabis to treat symptoms
Cannabis use disorders may protect against certain disorders of the digestive organs in people with schizophrenia but not in healthy controls.
Olesen JA, Posselt CM, Poulsen CH, Nordentoft M, Hjorthøj C.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use in patients with schizophrenia is associated with a reduced risk for inflammatory bowel disease
Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H.
2011
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use is frequent in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation
Cannabinoid Use in Patients With Gastroparesis and Related Disorders: Prevalence and Benefit.
Jehangir A, Parkman HP.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis may be an effective treatment of delayed gastric emptying according to a survey
Higher odds of irritable bowel syndrome among hospitalized patients using cannabis: a propensity-matched analysis.
Adejumo AC, Ajayi TO, Adegbala OM, Bukong TN.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome are more likely to use cannabis
Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study
Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S
2012
Cannabis
Open study
Improvement in general health perception, social functioning, ability to work, physical pain and depression; weight gain; average rise in BMI; average Harvey-Bradshaw index was reduced
Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn's disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis produced significant clinical benefits in 10 of 11 patients with active Crohn’s disease.
Members of the endocannabinoid system are distinctly regulated in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.
Grill M, et al.
2019
Other cannabinoids
Open study
The endocannabinoid system is altered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and bowel cancer
Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Ravikoff Allegretti J, Courtwright A, Lucci M, Korzenik JR, Levine J.
2013
Cannabis
Survey
Patients find cannabis very helpful for symptom control.
Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial.
Couch DG, Cook H, Ortori C, Barrett D, Lund JN, O'Sullivan SE.
2019
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
CBD and palmitoylethanolamine may be helpful in inflammatory bowel disease
Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol reduces fasting motility of the colon in IBS patients with diarrhoea
Randomized pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic trial of dronabinol effects on colon transit in irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea
Wong BS, Camilleri M, Eckert D, Carlson P, Ryks M, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR
2012
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC had no significant effects on gut transit.
Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.
Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM.
2011
Cannabis
Open study
Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly

Glaucoma

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence.
Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI.
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans.
Plange N, Arend KO, Kaup M, Doehmen B, Adams H, Hendricks S, Cordes A, Huth J, Sponsel WE, Remky A.
2007
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC reduced intraoculat pressure and improved blood circulation in the retina.
Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study.
Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ.
2006
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Controlled study
Significant reduction of intraocular pressure
Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma.
Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS
1980
Cannabis
Controlled study
Marihuana inhalation decreased intraocular and blood pressure.
Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension.
Crawford WJ, Merritt JC
1979
Cannabis
Controlled study
drop in IOP parallel with drop in arterial blood pressure
Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans.
Cooler P, Gregg JM
1977
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
reduction in intraocular pressure
Marijuana smoking and reduced pressure in human eyes: drug action or epiphenomenon?
Flom MC, Adams AJ, Jones RT
1975
Delta-9-THC
Open study
IOP reduction in 7 of 15
Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure.
Hepler RS, Frank IR
1971
Cannabis
Open study
9 of 11 had drop in intraocular pressure of 16-45%
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Patients were remarkably free of adverse physiologic effects.
Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Patients were remarkably free of adverse physiologic effects.
Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma.
Merritt JC, Perry DD, Russell DN, Jones BF
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
no effect

HIV/AIDS

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men
Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJ
2012
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis administration was associated with significant increases in plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not significantly influence insulin levels
Association of Cannabis, Stimulant, and Alcohol use with Mortality Prognosis Among HIV-Infected Men
Adams, Joëlla W. et al.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use has no effect on the mortality of HIV-infected men
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men.
Riggs PK, Vaida F, Rossi SS, Sorkin LS, Gouaux B, Grant I, Ellis RJ.
2011
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis modulates the concentration of appetite hormones
Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain
Sohler NL, Starrels JL, Khalid L, Bachhuber MA, Arnsten JH, Nahvi S, Jost J, Cunningham CO
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management
Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL.
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW
2007
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and cannabis caused an increase in caloric intake and weight
Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection.
Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P
1992
Delta-9-THC
Open study
weight gain
Daily cannabis and reduced risk of steatosis in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients
Nordmann S et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Daily cannabis use may protect the liver in people with HIV and hepatitis C
Differential Effects of Medical Marijuana Based on Strain and Route of Administration: A Three-Year Observational Study
Corral VL
2001
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study.
Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M.
2010
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Tolerance developed to the appetite-increasing effects of THC.
Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG.
1993
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Trends toward weight gain, improved appetite, decreased symptom stress
Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals
Manuzak JA et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Heavy cannabis use in patients with HIV is associated with improved immune function
HIV-infected cannabis users have lower circulating CD16+ monocytes and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 levels compared with nonusing HIV patients
Rizzo MD et al.
2018
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis may slow inflammation of the brain in patients with HIV and may maintain cognitive performance
Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia.
Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV
1997
Delta-9-THC
Open study
tendency to stable weight for 7 months
High-intensity cannabis use associated with lower plasma human immunodeficiency virus-1 RNA viral load among recently infected people who use injection drugs.
Milloy MJ, Marshall B, Kerr T, Richardson L, Hogg R, Guillemi S, Montaner JS, Wood E.
2015
Cannabis
Open study
At least daily cannabis use was associated with significant lower plasma HIV viral loads.
Marijuana Use Impacts Midlife Cardiovascular Events in HIV-Infected Men
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use may increase the risk for heart attacks in HIV positives
Marijuana smoking does not accelerate progression of liver disease in HIV-hepatitis C coinfection: a longitudinal cohort analysis.
Brunet L, Moodie EE, Rollet K, Cooper C, Walmsley S, Potter M, Klein MB; Canadian Co-infection Cohort Investigators.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
The use of cannabis did not accelerate progression to significant liver fibrosis.
Marijuana smoking does not accelerate progression of liver disease in HIV-hepatitis C coinfection: a longitudinal cohort analysis
Brunet L. et al.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis does not increase the risk of liver fibrosis in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV
Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M
2003
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Cannabis and THC had no significant effect on HI virus load and on CD4+ and CD8+ cell count
Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.
Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH.
2009
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant pain relief with cannabis.
Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Abrams DI, Jay CA, Vizoso H, Shade SB, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham M, Petersen K
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis is effective in reducing HIV-related neuropathic pain
Recent clinical experience with dronabinol.
Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG
1991
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Significant weight gain
The effects of smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy and cancer pain refractory to opiods.
Abrams DI, Jay Ch, Petersen K, Shade S, Vizoso H, Reda H, Benowitz N, Rowbotham M.
2003
Cannabis
Open study
10 of the 16 participants experienced a greater than 30% reduction in their pain
The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. The DATRI 004 Study Group. Division of AIDS Treatment Research Initiative.
Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G
1997
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
weight loss with THC, weight gain with megestrol acetate

Huntington's disease

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Cannabinoids for Treatment of Dystonia in Huntington's Disease
Saft C, von Hein SM, Lücke T, Thiels C, Peball M, Djamshidian A, Heim B3, Seppi K
2018
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabinoids may be helpful in the treatment of Huntington's disease

Headache/migraine

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Cluster attacks responsive to recreational cannabis and dronabinol.
Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM.
2009
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis and THC aborted attacks of headaches.
Use of cannabis among 139 cluster headache sufferers.
Leroux E, Taifas I, Valade D, Donnet A, Chagnon M, Ducros A.
2013
Cannabis
Survey
Less than one third of self-reported users mention a relief of their attacks following inhalation.

Insomnia

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Anastasia Suraev, Ronald R Grunstein, Nathaniel S Marshall, Angela L D'Rozario, Christopher J Gordon, Delwyn J Bartlett, Keith Wong, Brendon J Yee, Ryan Vandrey, Chris Irwin, Jonathon C Arnold, Iain S McGregor, and Camilla M Hoyoscorresponding author
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study is not yet complete but the researchers plan to perform a controlled study to explore the effects of CBD and THC for insomnia disorder - 'a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-dose study design' will test the safety and efficacy of cannabis compounds in the treatment of insomnia.

Immune System (MS)

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
James M. Nichols, Barbara L.F. Kaplan
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
The data found that CBD is immune suppressive and an anti-inflammatory also induces the process of 'apoptosis' which involves immune system cells removing developing cells which are potentially cancerous and/ or virus infected. This process maintains the body's balance and discards unwanted cells which are in development.

Inflammation / Rheumatoid arthritis

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Torsten Lowin,corresponding author Ren Tingting, Julia Zurmahr,Tim Classen, Matthias Schneider, and Georg Pongratz
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study shows that CBD works as an anti-inflammatory and 'possesses anti-arthritic activity' by 'targeting synovial fibroblasts under inflammatory conditions'.

Inflammation / Obesity

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Silvana Y. Romero-Zerbo, María García-Fernández, Vanesa Espinosa-Jiménez, Macarena Pozo-Morales, Alejandro Escamilla-Sánchez, Lourdes Sánchez-Salido, Estrella Lara, Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Alex Rafacho, Gabriel Olveira, Gemma Rojo-Martínez, Benoit R. Gauthier, Isabel González-Mariscal, Francisco J. Bermúdez-Silva
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
This study showed positive results on mice when Abn-CBD was used to lower inflammation in the liver and pancreas. Therefore Abn-CBD and other related compounds could 'represent novel pharmacological strategies' for the management of obesity related metabolic conditions.

Inflammation

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H.
2011
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use is frequent in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation
Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study
Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S
2012
Cannabis
Open study
Improvement in general health perception, social functioning, ability to work, physical pain and depression; weight gain; average rise in BMI; average Harvey-Bradshaw index was reduced
Investigating the Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Cannabis Use, and Circulating Cytokines: A Preliminary Analysis
Karoly HC, Bidwell LC, Mueller RL, Hutchison KE.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use mitigates inflammation associated with alcohol use
Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study.
Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S.
2011
Cannabis
Open study
Significant improvement of several symptoms.
Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn's disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis produced significant clinical benefits in 10 of 11 patients with active Crohn’s disease.
Modulation of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Signaling by Medicinal Cannabinoids
Utomo WK, et al.
2017
Open study
Cannabis use alters immune cells in a way, which supports beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases and cancer
Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Ravikoff Allegretti J, Courtwright A, Lucci M, Korzenik JR, Levine J.
2013
Cannabis
Survey
Patients find cannabis very helpful for symptom control.
Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.
Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM.
2011
Cannabis
Open study
Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly

Memory (Cerebral Blood Flow)

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Michael A P Bloomfield, Sebastian F Green, Chandni Hindocha, Yumeya Yamamori, Jocelyn Lok Ling Yim, Augustus P M Jones, Hannah R Walker, Pawel Tokarczuk, Ben Statton, Oliver D Howes, H Valerie Curran, Tom P Freeman
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
The findings of this study suggest that CBD increases the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in specific areas of the brain involved in memory processing. These results identify potential mechanisms of CBD for conditions involving the alteration of memory processing for patients like Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress.

Multiple sclerosis

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A randomised controlled study of Sativex® in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
Collin C, Ambler Z, Kent R, McCalla R.
2006
Cannabis
Controlled study
Spasticity of patients who received cannabis and complied with the study protocol was significantly reduced compared to placebo.
A questionnaire survey of patients and carers of patients prescribed Sativex as an unlicensed medicine.
Notcutt WG.
2012
Cannabis
Survey
Most respondents experienced improvements across a range of symptoms.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
Collin C, Ehler E, Waberzinek G, Alsindi Z, Davies P, Powell K, Notcutt W, O'Leary C, Ratcliffe S, Nováková I, Zapletalova O, Piková J, Ambler Z
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant reduction in treatment-resistant spasticity.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex(®) ), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.
Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O, Gasperini C, Pozzilli C, Cefaro L, Comi G, Rossi P, Ambler Z, Stelmasiak Z, Erdmann A, Montalban X, Klimek A, Davies P; the Sativex Spasticity Study Group.
2011
Cannabis
Controlled study
The cannabis extract significantly reduced spasticity.
A new multiple sclerosis spasticity treatment option: effect in everyday clinical practice and cost-effectiveness in Germany.
Flachenecker P.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
The cannabis extract sativex is effective in a large number of patients and well-tolerated in the long-term.
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis.
Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ.
2004
Cannabis
Open study
Urinary urgency, the number and volume of incontinence episodes, frequency and nocturia all decreased.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Langford RM, Mares J, Novotna A, Vachova M, Novakova I, Notcutt W, Ratcliffe S
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
No significant difference between placebo and Sativex in Phase A; Phase B demonstrated an analgesic effect.
Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors.
Hamann W, di Vadi PP.
1999
Nabilone
Open study
Relieve of pain
Acute and chronic effects of cannabis based medicinal extract on refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis – early results
Brady CM, DasGupta R, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ
2001
Cannabis
Open study
Mean maximum cystometric capacity increased
Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.
Koehler J, Feneberg W, Meier M, Pöllmann W.
2014
Cannabis
Open study
The mean spasticity decreased by 57%.
Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis.
Lorente Fernández L, Monte Boquet E, Pérez-Miralles F, Gil Gómez I, Escutia Roig M, Boscá Blasco I, Poveda Andrés JL, Casanova-Estruch B.
2014
Cannabis
Open study
The cannabis extract was effective in 80% of patients.
Cannabis and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis: The role of gender
Patel VP, Feinstein A
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use may have a negative effect on cognition in male patients with multiple sclerosis
Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.
Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Significant improvement of symptoms
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M.
2009
Cannabis
Open studyControlled study
The study provides objective neurophysiological evidence that cannabinoids modulate the nociceptive system.
Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.
Scully C.
2007
Cannabis
Open study
The spray caused reversible damage to the mucosa
Cannabinoid influence on cytokine profile in multiple sclerosis.
Katona S, Kaminski E, Sanders H, Zajicek J.
2005
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
There were no significant effects of cannabinoids on the cytokine profiles examined.
Dronabinol Is a Safe Long-Term Treatment Option for Neuropathic Pain Patients
Schimrigk S et al.
2017
Other cannabinoids
Open study
No significant difference between placebo and THC in the treatment of pain of patients with multiple sclerosis
Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis.
Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW
1987
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
significant subjective improvement in spasticity at doses of 7.5 mg and above; no objective improvement
Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Svendsen KB, Jensen TS, Bach FW
2004
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain by THC
Effect of tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray on activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients with resistant spasticity: a retrospective, observational study.
Mallada Frechín J.
2018
Other cannabinoids
Survey
A cannabis spray has positive effects on activities of daily living in patients with Multiple Sclerosis
Endocannabinoid system modulator use in everyday clinical practice in the UK and Spain.
Endocannabinoid system modulator use in everyday clinical practice in the UK and Spain.
2013
Cannabis
Open study
Sativex appears to be a well-tolerated and useful add-on therapy in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.
Effect of dronabinol on progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (CUPID): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
Zajicek J, Ball S, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Miller D, Cano MG, McManus D, Mallik S, Hobart J; on behalf of the CUPID investigator group.
2013
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC, which was given for 36 months, had no effect on progression compared to placebo
Effects on Spasticity and Neuropathic Pain of an Oral Formulation of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Effects on Spasticity and Neuropathic Pain of an Oral Formulation of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
van Amerongen G, Kanhai K, Baakman AC, Heuberger J, Klaassen E, Beumer TL, Strijers RL, Killestein J, van Gerven J, Cohen A, Groeneveld GJ
2017
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC showed mixed results in the treatment of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis
Exploring cannabis use by patients with multiple sclerosis in a state where cannabis is legal.
Weinkle L, Domen CH, Shelton I, Sillau S, Nair K, Alvarez E.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Many patients with multiple sclerosis use cannabis, if it is legal
Evaluating Sativex® in Neuropathic Pain Management: A Clinical and Neurophysiological Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis.
Russo M, Naro A, Leo A, Sessa E, D'Aleo G, Bramanti P, Calabrò RS.
2016
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabis reduced neuropathic pain
Long-term effectiveness and safety of nabiximols (tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol oromucosal spray) in clinical practice.
Flachenecker P, Henze T, Zettl UK.
2014
Cannabis
Open study
Researchers found that “real-life data confirm the long-term effectiveness and tolerability of nabiximols [Sativex] for the treatment of resistant MSS [multiple sclerosis spasticity].
Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis.
Centonze D, Mori F, Koch G, Buttari F, Codecà C, Rossi S, Cencioni MT, Bari M, Fiore S, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Maccarrone M.
2009
Cannabis
Controlled study
There was no effect of the cannabis extract on spasticity
Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial.
Wissel J, Haydn T, Muller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD.
2006
Nabilone
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain
Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial.
Zajicek JP, Hobart JC, Slade A, Barnes D, Mattison PG; on behalf of the MUSEC Research Group.
2012
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant improvement by the cannabis extract Cannador of spasticity and pain.
Multiple Sclerosis and Use of Medical Cannabis: A Retrospective Review Evaluating Symptom Outcomes
McCormack K. et al.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
MS patients taking cannabis were able to reduce intake of opioids and benzodiazepines
Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J
1995
Nabilone
Controlled study
improvement of muscle spasms and frequency of nocturia
Nabiximols (THC/CBD oromucosal spray, Sativex®) in clinical practice--results of a multicenter, non-interventional study (MOVE 2) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.
Flachenecker P, Henze T, Zettl UK.
2014
Cannabis
Open study
The cannabis extract Sativex provided relief in 74.6% of participants.
Oromucosal ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial.
Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA.
2007
Cannabis
Open study
No development of tolerance within a period of two years of treatment
Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study.
Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, Conte A, Gupta S, Gilio F, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M.
2009
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis did not impair cognition
Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis
Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S, for the Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significantly reduction in spasticity
Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.
Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA.
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis is effective in reducing pain and sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis related central neuropathic pain
Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis.
Young CA, Rog DJ
2003
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant reduction in pain
Randomised controlled study of cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity
de Ridder D, Constantinescu CS,Fowler C, Kavia R, Sarantis N.
2006
Cannabis
Controlled study
A significant reduction in the number of voids per day and during the night.
Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicine (CBM, Stativex®) to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis.
Kavia R, De Ridder D, Sarantis N, Constantinescu C, Fowler.
2000
Cannabis
Controlled study
There was no effect on daily incontinence, but the cannabis extract was superior to placebo for nocturia.
Sativex® as Add-on therapy Vs. further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT) in resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial.
Markovà J, Essner U, Akmaz B, Marinelli M, Trompke C, Lentschat A, Silván CV
2018
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Long-term efficacy of a cannabis spray in the treatment of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis
Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte TD, Bentley H, Gouaux B.
2012
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity and pain.
Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers
Greenberg HS, Werness SAS, Pugh JE, Andrus RO, Anderson DJ, Domino EF
1994
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis reduced posture and balance in patients with MS
THC/CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis overactive bladder: a pilot prospective study
Maniscalco GT et al.
2018
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabis may be beneficial in overactive bladder of patients with MS according to an observational study
Tetrahydrocannabinol/Cannabidiol Oromucosal Spray in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study on the Plasma Concentration-Effect Relationship.
Contin M, Mancinelli L, Perrone A, Sabattini L, Mohamed S, Scandellari C, Foschi M, Vacchiano V, Lugaresi A, Riva R.
2018
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Open study
Large variation of plasma concentrations of THC and CBD after oral intake
The effect of cannabinoids on the stretch reflex in multiple sclerosis spasticity.
Marinelli L, Mori L, Canneva S, Colombano F, Currà A, Fattapposta F, Bandini F, Capello E, Abbruzzese G, Trompetto C.
2016
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis reduces the stretch reflex in patients with multiple sclerosis
Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis.
Clifford DB
1983
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
2 patients with objective improvement, 5 with subjective improvement
Treatment failure of intrathecal baclofen and supra-additive effect of nabiximols in multiple sclerosis-related spasticity: a case report.
Stroet A, Trampe N, Chan A.
2013
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
A combination of baclofen injections into the cerebrospinal fluid and very low doses of the cannabis extract Sativex was highly effective.
The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS).
Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J.
2006
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Cannabis and dronabinol caused a significant reduction in incontinence

Nausea/vomiting

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A randomized-controlled trial of nabilone for the prevention of acute postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective surgery
Levin DN, Dulberg Z, Chan AW, Hare GM, Mazer CD, Hong A
2017
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone was not effective in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting
A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea.
Priestman SG, Priestman TJ, Canney PA.
1987
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone similar effective as metoclopramide
Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk IH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting but not in all patients
A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues.
Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, Harding M, Kerr DJ, Soukop M, Kaye SB.
1988
Nabilone
Open study
Metoclopramide/dexamethasone superior to nabilone/prochlorperazine
Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG, Kalman LB, Groshen S
1984
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Poorer antiemetic control and more side effects with dronabinol than with the metoclopramide, both better than placebo
Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy.
Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Calder IT, Moran F.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Symptom scores were significantly better for patients on nabilone for nausea, retching and vomiting.
A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with chlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, Stuart F, Sangster G, Kaye S, Charlton D, et al.
1983
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
0.5 mg levonantradol was a more effective antiemtic than 25 mg chlorpromazine
A multi-institutional Phase III study of nabilone vs. placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A.
1982
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone is an effective antiemetic agent for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
no significant reduction of the number of vomiting, volume of emesis, degree of nausea, or duration of nausea
Cannabis for intractable nausea after bilateral cerebellar stroke.
Adhiyaman V, Arshad S.
2014
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
A woman with intractable nausea after cerebellar stroke responded well to a treatment with THC.
Cannabinoids in the management of intractable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain.
Sutton IR, Daeninck P.
2006
Nabilone
Survey;Uncontrolled case report
Significant improvement in one case of intractable neuropathic pain and one case of refractory cinv
[Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern.
Gottschling S.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea
Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C.
Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y.
2006
Cannabis
Open study
Participants who used cannabis maintained adherence to treatment more offen
Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy.
Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to alizapride.
Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol
Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and haloperidol equally effective
Dronabinol Treatment of Refractory Nausea and Vomiting Related to Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.
Hernandez SL, Sheyner I, Stover KT, Stewart JT.
2015
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC may be very effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in end-stage cancer.
Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J
1991
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
prochlorperazine better than THC, both drugs combined better than both alone
Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G
1981
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC 15 mg was the most effective against vomiting, prochlorperazine was the most effective antinauseant
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo.
Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connell MJ, Schutt AJ, Schwartau NW
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC and PCP equally effective; both better than placebo; THC produced psychic effects in 82%
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation.
Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Simon RM, Rosenberg SA.
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
14 of 15 patients had decreased vomiting and nausea
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo
Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA
1979
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
dronabinol superior to placebo (P<.01 for difference between groups at days 1 and 8 independently)
Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus.
Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL
2008
Delta-9-THC;Nabilone
Open study
Improvement of appetite and reduction of nausea and vomiting by nabilone and dronabinol (THC)
Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy.
Lewis IH, Campbell DN, Barrowcliffe MP.
1994
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone and metoclopramide were equally effective in reducing nausea and vomiting
Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V.
2007
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Dronabinol was as effective as ondansetron in reducing nausea and vomiting. Combination therapy was not more effective.
Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials.
Musty RE, Rossi R.
2001
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Open study
Cannabis caused symptom relief in 70-100%, dronabinol caused symptom relief in 76-88%
Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy
McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R
1988
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC decreased nausea and vomiting in 23 of 36 (64%) patients
Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Clinical Cannabis: To Eat or Not to Eat?
Curry W-NL
2002
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis effective in treating nausea and vomiting in pregnant women
Improving Quality of Life With Nabilone During Radiotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Côté M, Trudel M, Wang C, Fortin A.
2015
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone did not reduce pain and nausea in patients treated for head and neck cancer.
Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol).
Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D
1997
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
patients was treated with several antiemetic drugs, but it was not until dronabinol was added that the nausea and vomiting stopped
Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E.
1988
Cannabis
Open study
Marijuana effective as antiemetic agent
Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy.
Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.
Marijuana Use in HIV-Positive and AIDS Patients: Results of an Anonymous Mail Survey
Sidney S.
2001
Cannabis
Survey
22.4 % used cannabis for medicinal purposes
Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea.
de Jong BC, Prentiss D, McFarland W, Machekano R, Israelski DM.
2005
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS
Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.
Choukèr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G.
2010
Open study
Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7) showed lower endocannabinoid levels during parabolic flights.
Nabilone as effective therapy for intractable nausea and vomiting in AIDS.
Green ST, Nathwani D, Goldberg DJ, Kennedy DH.
1989
Nabilone
Uncontrolled case report
Intractable nausea and vomiting was effectively relieved with nabilone
Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial.
Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM
1987
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone effective as antiemetic drug for children
Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study.
Crawford SM, Buckman R.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
No difference between nabilone and metoclopramide
Nabilone: an alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Even for young children nabilone is an effective antiemetic, superior to domperidone.
Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD.
1981
Nabilone
Controlled study
Sixty patients (75 per cent) reported nabilone to be more effective than prochlorperazine for relief of nausea and vomiting.
Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farré M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellà D.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients refractory to other medications
Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis.
Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M.
1986
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone superior to domperidone
Prevention of nausea and vomiting following breast surgery.
Layeeque R, Siegel E, Kass R, Henry-Tillman RS, Colvert M, Mancino A, Klimberg VS.
2006
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Postoperative nausea and vomiting was reduced by prophylactic administration of dronabinol and prochlorperazine
Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting.
Lucraft HH, Palmer MK
1982
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
The frequency of vomiting was similar after levonantradol and chlorpromazine.
Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics.
Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A
1984
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
9 patients no preference; 7 preferred oral THC, 4 preferred marijuana cigarettes (double-blind, double dummy crossover study)
[Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin][Article in French]
George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP.
1983
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone, in comparison with chlorpromazine did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting, but most patients preferred nabilone.
Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness'.
Westfall RE, Janssen PA, Lucas P, Capler R.
2006
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis effective against nausea and vomiting
Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, Furnas B, Williams SD, Leigh SA, Dorr RT, Moon TE.
1979
Nabilone
Controlled study
When both drugs were compared, both nausea and vomiting episodes were significantly lower in patients given nabilone.
THC or Compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient--the UCLA study. Part II: Patient drug preference.
Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K.
1985
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
nausea reduction was the main determinant of preference between THC and prochlorperazine
The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG.
1980
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
tetrahydrocannabinol given by mouth has an antiemetic effect of approximately the same order as thiethylperazine and metoclopramide
THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients
Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D
2007
Delta-9-THC
Open study
THC improved appetite and weight and reduced nausea
Use of medical marijuana for treatment of severe intractable nausea after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: case report.
Merriman AR, Oliak DA.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
THC relieved nausea refractory to other medications

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study.
Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Statistically significant reduction in symptom severity.
Refractory OCD Due to Thalamic Infarct With Response to Dronabinol
Cooper JJ, Grant J
2017
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report

Psychiatric Disorders - anxiety, schizophrenia, sleep, PTSD

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
Jerome Sarris, Justin Sinclair, Diana Karamacoska, Maggie Davidson, Joseph Firth
2020
Cannabidiol
Controlled Study
The review undertaken in this study reveals encouraging but 'embryonic' evidence for the use of medicinal cannabis (CBD and/ or THC) in treating certain psychiatric disorders. Some identified areas of promise are the use of CBD for social anxiety reduction and for use in schizophrenia. This study also reviews case studies which suggest medicinal cannabis as beneficial for sleep and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Pain

Title Author(s) Year Medication(s) Design Major outcome(s) P/N
A questionnaire survey of patients and carers of patients prescribed Sativex as an unlicensed medicine.
Notcutt WG.
2012
Cannabis
Survey
Most respondents experienced improvements across a range of symptoms.
A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial With Extension Using an Oral Mucosal Cannabinoid Extract for Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG.
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Five patients tended to respond to a treatment with cannabis
Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring.
Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M.
2008
Nabilone
Open study
Significant improvement of pain
An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain From Spinal Cord Injury and Disease.
Wilsey B, Marcotte TD, Deutsch R, Zhao H, Prasad H, Phan A.
2016
Cannabis
Controlled study
Inhaled cannabis reduces neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury
A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users.
Corroon J, Phillips JA.
2018
Cannabidiol
Survey
CBD is mostly used against pain, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression
Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors.
Hamann W, di Vadi PP.
1999
Nabilone
Open study
Relieve of pain
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Langford RM, Mares J, Novotna A, Vachova M, Novakova I, Notcutt W, Ratcliffe S
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
No significant difference between placebo and Sativex in Phase A; Phase B demonstrated an analgesic effect.
Association of Medical and Adult-Use Marijuana Laws With Opioid Prescribing for Medicaid Enrollees
Wen H, Hockenberry JM
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Legalization of cannabis for medical use is associated with reduced prescriptions of opioids
Association Between US State Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Prescribing in the Medicare Part D Population
Bradford AC, Bradford WD, Abraham A, Bagwell Adams G
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Legalization of cannabis for medical use is associated with reduced prescriptions of opioids
An experimental randomized study on the analgesic effects of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis in chronic pain patients with fibromyalgia.
van de Donk T, Niesters M, Kowal MA, Olofsen E, Dahan A, van Velzen M.
2018
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis rich in THC may be useful in the treatment of fibromyalgia
A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis.
Wilsey BL, Deutsch R, Samara E, Marcotte TD, Barnes AJ, Huestis MA, Le D.
2016
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Moderate relationship between THC concentrations and reduction of pain
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial with extension using an oral mucosal cannabinoid extract for treatment of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.
Lynch ME, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Hohmann AG.
2014
Cannabis
Controlled study
Reduction in pain intensity
An efficient randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial with the irreversible fatty acid amide hydrolase-1 inhibitor PF-04457845, which modulates endocannabinoids but fails to induce effective analgesia in patients with pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee.
Huggins JP, Smart TS, Langman S, Taylor L, Young T.
2012
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
A FAAH inhibitor was not more effective than a placebo.
A Randomized, Controlled Study to Investigate the Analgesic Efficacy of Single Doses of the Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Agonist GW842166, Ibuprofen or Placebo in Patients With Acute Pain Following Third Molar Tooth Extraction.
Ostenfeld T, Price J, Albanese M, Bullman J, Guillard F, Meyer I, Leeson R, Costantin C, Ziviani L, Nocini PF, Milleri S.
2011
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
No superior analgetic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid GW842166 over placebo.
An Open-Label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy.
Bestard JA, Toth CC.
2010
Nabilone
Open study
The benefits of nabilone are similar as gabapentin
Adjuvant topical therapy with a cannabinoid receptor agonist in facial postherpetic neuralgia.
Phan NQ, Siepmann D, Gralow I, Ständer S.
2010
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Five of eight patients experienced a good pain relief
A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain.
Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Fishman S.
2008
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant improvement of pain
Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of nabilone on experimental heat pain.
Redmond WJ, Goffaux P, Potvin S, Marchand S.
2008
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone did not reduce experimental heat pain
A prospective identification of neuropathic pain in specific chronic polyneuropathy syndromes and response to pharmacological therapy.
Toth C, Au S.
2008
Cannabis;Nabilone
Open study
Similar treatment effects and side effects of cannabinoids compared to other medications
A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management.
Holdcroft A, Maze M, Dore C, Tebbs S, Thompson S.
2006
Cannabis
Controlled study
The optimal dose was 10 mg Cannador, effectively reducing postoperative pain without serious side effects.
Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?
Attal N, Brasseur L, Guirimand D, Clermond-Gnamien S, Atlami S, Bouhassira D
2004
Delta-9-THC
Open study
No significant decraese of pain in 7 patients, more than 60% decrease in one patient
Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial.
Karst M, Salim K, Burstein S, Conrad I, Hoy L, Schneider U.
2003
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain
A case of cannabinoid rotation in a young woman with chronic cystitis
Krenn H Daha LK Oczenski W Fitzgerald R D
2003
Delta-9-THC;Nabilone
Uncontrolled case report
THC reduced pain with low side effects; nabilone caused strong psychic side effects
Antinociceptive, subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana in humans.
Greenwald MK, Stitzer ML.
2000
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis produced dose-dependent antinociception
[Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain - a randomized controlled trial.] [Article in German]
Pinsger M, Schimetta W, Volc D, Hiermann E, Riederer F, Polz W.
2006
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone caused a significant reduction in pain and improvement of quality of life.
Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay
Cuñetti L, Manzo L, Peyraube R, Arnaiz J, Curi L, Orihuela S
2018
Cannabidiol
Open study
CBD may reduce pain in patients with kidney transplants
Cannabis Use is Associated with Lower Odds of Prescription Opioid Analgesic Use Among HIV-Infected Individuals with Chronic Pain
Sohler NL, Starrels JL, Khalid L, Bachhuber MA, Arnsten JH, Nahvi S, Jost J, Cunningham CO
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Medical cannabis legislation might reduce the need for opioid analgesics for pain management
Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL.
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M.
2009
Cannabis
Open studyControlled study
The study provides objective neurophysiological evidence that cannabinoids modulate the nociceptive system.
Cannabis analgesia in chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered brain connectivity.
Weizman L, Dayan L, Brill S, Nahman-Averbuch H, Hendler T, Jacob G, Sharon H.
2018
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC reduces neuropathic pain and this is associated with altered connections between two brain regions
Cannabinoids and spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome refractory pain.
Mondello E, Quattrone D, Cardia L, Bova G, Mallamace R, Barbagallo AA, Mondello C, Mannucci C, Di Pietro M, Arcoraci V, Calapai G.
2018
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Open study
Cannabis improves pain in patients with failed back surgery syndrome
Combined THC and CBD to treat pain in epidermolysis bullosa: a report of three cases.
Schräder NHB, Duipmans JC, Molenbuur B, Wolff A, Jonkman MF.
2018
Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol
Uncontrolled case report
Cannabis effective against pain due to epidermolysis bullosa according to case reports
Cannabis and intractable chronic pain: an explorative retrospective analysis of Italian cohort of 614 patients
Fanelli G et al.
2017
Cannabis;Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabis may be effective in the treatment of chronic pain according to a large case series from Italy
Cannabinoids as effective as pharmaceutical treatments for migraine attacks
Gary Scattergood
2017
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Cannabis effective in migraine and cluster headache in a clinical study
Chronic pain patients' perspectives of medical cannabis
Piper BJ, Beals ML, Abess AT, Nichols SD, Martin M, Cobb CM, DeKeuster RM.
2017
Cannabis
Survey
Medical cannabis patients rate cannabis as very effective
Cannabinoids in the management of intractable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain.
Sutton IR, Daeninck P.
2006
Nabilone
Survey;Uncontrolled case report
Significant improvement in one case of intractable neuropathic pain and one case of refractory cinv
Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.
Cooper ZD, Comer SD, Haney M.
2013
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC (dronabinol) and smoked cannabis (marijuana) caused similar effects on pain sensitivity and pain tolerance.
[Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern.
Gottschling S.
2011
Delta-9-THC
Uncontrolled case report
Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea
Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.
Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M.
2011
Cannabis
Open study
The use of cannabis was associated with reduction of some fibromyalgia symptoms.
Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain
Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL
2011
Cannabis
Open study
Pain was significantly decreased
Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State.
Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD.
2009
Open study
Open study
88 % suffer from more than one pain syndrome
Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study.
Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D.
2008
Controlled study
Controlled study
Nabilone as effective as hydrocodeine in treating neuropatic pain
Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey.
Ware MA, Doyle CR, Woods R, Lynch ME, Clark AJ
2003
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use is prevalent among the chronic non-cancer pain population
Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H.
2011
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use is frequent in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation
Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain.
Lynch ME, Clark AJ.
2003
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Improvement in pain, spasticity, bladder spasm, and sleep.
Cannabinoid agonists attenuate capsaicin-induced responses in human skin.
Rukwied R, Watkinson A, McGlone F, Dvorak M.
2003
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
A topically applied cannabinoid receptor agonist (HU210) reduced pain caused by capsaicin
Dronabinol increases pain threshold in patients with functional chest pain: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Malik Z, Bayman L, Valestin J, Rizivi-Toner A, Hashmi S, Schey R.
2016
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC reduced pain intensity and odynophagia (painful swallowing, in the mouth or oesophagus).
Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.
Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I.
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
A medium dose of cannabis reduced pain, while a high dose increased pain induced by capsaicin
Dronabinol Is a Safe Long-Term Treatment Option for Neuropathic Pain Patients
Schimrigk S et al.
2017
Other cannabinoids
Open study
No significant difference between placebo and THC in the treatment of pain of patients with multiple sclerosis
Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial
Svendsen KB, Jensen TS, Bach FW
2004
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain by THC
Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief.
Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R.
2006
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Five of the nine patients withdrew from the study due to side effects. Four patients experienced significant pain relief
Effects of Legal Access to Cannabis on Scheduled II-V Drug Prescriptions.
Stith SS, Vigil JM, Adams IM, Reeve AP
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Legal access to cannabis may reduce the treatment with other medicinal drugs
Effect profile of paracetamol, Δ9-THC and promethazine using an evoked pain test battery in healthy subjects
van Amerongen G, Siebenga P, de Kam ML, Hay JL, Groeneveld GJ
2018
Delta-9-THC
Open study
Acute pain is reduced by THC
Effect of cannabis use in people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids: findings from a 4-year prospective cohort study.
Campbell G. et al.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Pain patients who use cannabis have greater pain severity than non-users
Effect of adding medical cannabis to analgesic treatment in patients with low back pain related to fibromyalgia: an observational cross-over single centre study.
Yassin M, Oron A, Robinson D.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may be beneficial in patients with fibromyalgia and low back pain
Efficacy of Inhaled Cannabis on Painful Diabetic Neuropathy
Wallace MS, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Gouaux B, Atkinson JH
2015
Cannabis
Controlled study
Inhaled cannabis demonstrated a dose dependent reduction in peripheral treatment-refractory neuropathic pain.
Effect of medical cannabis on thermal quantitative measurements of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Shohet A, Khlebtovsky A, Roizen N, Roditi Y, Djaldetti R.
2016
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis use improved pain and movement
Experience of adjunctive cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: Findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.
Degenhardt L, Lintzeris N, Campbell G, Bruno R, Cohen M, Farrell M, Hall WD.
2015
Cannabis
Survey
Pain patients, who receive opioids, experience better pain relief if they also take cannabis.
Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy.
Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
THC reduced pain
Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy
Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN
2007
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study;Open study
THC had an additional effect on pain relief
Effects of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on postoperative pain.
Beaulieu P.
2006
Nabilone
Controlled study
No pain reduction with nabilone.
Experience with the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in chronic noncancer pain.
Berlach DM, Shir Y, Ware MA.
2006
Nabilone
Open study
9 patients reported reduced pain intensity
Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial.
Ware MA, Ducruet T, Robinson AR.
2006
Cannabis
Controlled study
Medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal cannabis products
Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.
Berman JS, Symonds C, Birch R.
2004
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Significant pain relief and improvement of sleep
Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial
Berman J, Lee J, Cooper M, Cannon A, Sach J, McKerral S, Taggart M, Symonds C, Fishel K, Birch R
2003
Cannabis;Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
Significant pain relief and improvement of sleep
Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain.
Jain AK, Ryan JR, McMahon FG, Smith G.
1981
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
significant pain relief compared with placebo
Effects of moderate and high doses of marihuana on thermal pain: a sensory decision theory analysis.
Clark WC, Janal MN, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG.
1981
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis increased perseption of pain
Effect of benzopyranoperidine, a delta-9-THC congener, on pain.
Jochimsen PR, Lawton RL, VerSteeg K, Noyes Jr R
1978
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Bezopyranoperidine was not more effective than placebo
Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response.
Raft D, Gregg J, Ghia J, Harris L
1977
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No pain relief with THC
Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor Treatment in Men With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: An Adaptive Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.
Wagenlehner FM, et al.
2017
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
An inhibitor of FAAH did not influence pain in patients with chronic prostatitis
Improving Quality of Life With Nabilone During Radiotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Côté M, Trudel M, Wang C, Fortin A.
2015
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone did not reduce pain and nausea in patients treated for head and neck cancer.
Impact of Medical Marijuana Legalization on Opioid Use, Chronic Opioid Use, and High-risk Opioid Use.
Shah A, Hayes CJ, Lakkad M, Martin BC.
2019
Cannabis
Survey
The legalisation of medical cannabis in the USA is associated with lower opioid use
Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability
Cooper ZD, Bedi G, Ramesh D, Balter R, Comer SD, Haney M
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis enhances the pain reducing effects of the opioid oxycodone according to experimental study
Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study
Lahat A, Lang A, Ben-Horin S
2012
Cannabis
Open study
Improvement in general health perception, social functioning, ability to work, physical pain and depression; weight gain; average rise in BMI; average Harvey-Bradshaw index was reduced
Intractable neuropathic pain due to ulnar nerve entrapment treated with cannabis and ketamine 10%.
Hesselink JM, Kopsky DJ.
2012
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
Significant pain improvement with cannabis and ketamine.
Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn's disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study
Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis produced significant clinical benefits in 10 of 11 patients with active Crohn’s disease.
Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain
Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Deutsch R, Gouaux B, Sakai S, Donaghe H
2013
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis reduced pain. No difference in efficacy between the two doses.
Lack of effect of central nervous system-active doses of nabilone on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia.
Kalliomäki J, Philipp A, Baxendale J, Annas P, Karlsten R, Segerdahl M.
2012
Nabilone
Controlled study
The cannabinoid had no significant effect on acute experimental pain.
Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers.
Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, Kress HG.
2008
Cannabis
Controlled study
The cannabis extract showed no analgesic effect in acute experimental pain
Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial.
Wissel J, Haydn T, Muller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD.
2006
Nabilone
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain
Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain.
Buggy DJ, Toogood L, Maric S, Sharpe P, Lambert DG, Rowbotham DJ
2003
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
5 mg was ineffective in reduding postoperative pain.
Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia.
Lindstrom P, Lindblom U, Boreus L.
1987
Cannabidiol
Controlled study
no effect of CBD on pain
Marijuana Use Patterns Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Ravikoff Allegretti J, Courtwright A, Lucci M, Korzenik JR, Levine J.
2013
Cannabis
Survey
Patients find cannabis very helpful for symptom control.
Medical Cannabis: Effects on Opioid and Benzodiazepine Requirements for Pain Control.
O'Connell M, Sandgren M, Frantzen L, Bower E, Erickson B.
2019
Open study
Cannabis reduces opioid use by pain patients
Medical Cannabis for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
Habib G, Artul S.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may have a beneficial effect on patients with fibromyalgia
Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy.
Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N.
2009
Cannabis
Survey
20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.
Medical Cannabis Legalization and Opioid Prescriptions: Evidence on US Medicaid Enrollees during 1993-2014.
Liang D, Bao Y, Wallace M, Grant I, Shi Y.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Legalization of cannabis for medical use in the US is associated with reduced opioid prescriptions
Marijuana's Influence on Pain Scores, Initial Weight Loss, and Other Bariatric Surgical Outcomes.
Bauer FL, Donahoo WT, Hollis HW Jr, Tsai AG, Pottorf BJ, Johnson JM, Silveira LJ, Husain FA.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis users need higher doses of opioids after surgery
Medical Cannabis in Patients with Chronic Pain: Effect on Pain Relief, Pain Disability, and Psychological aspects. A Prospective Non randomized Single Arm Clinical Trial.
Poli P, Crestani F, Salvadori C, Valenti I, Sannino C.
2017
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis tea effective in the treatment of chronic pain
Marihuana and pain.
Hill SY, Schwin R, Goodwin DW, Powell B.
1974
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis increased pain sensitivity
Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D.
2008
Nabilone
Controlled study
Nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated
Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethansand Daryl K.
2007
Nabilone
Controlled study
Significant reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life with nabilone
Oromucosal ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial.
Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA.
2007
Cannabis
Open study
No development of tolerance within a period of two years of treatment
Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain.
Haroutiunian S, Rosen G, Shouval R, Davidson E.
2008
Delta-9-THC
Open study
5 patients reported adequate response to the treatment.
Pills to pot: observational analyses of cannabis substitution among medical cannabis users with chronic pain.
Boehnke KF, Scott JR, Litinas E, Sisley S, Williams DA, Clauw DJ.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis may be an effective pain reliever and substitute for opioids according to a survey
Patient Perceptions of the Use of Medical Marijuana in the Treatment of Pain After Musculoskeletal Trauma: A Survey of Patients at 2 Trauma Centers in Massachusetts.
Heng M, McTague MF, Lucas RC, Harris MB, Vrahas MS, Weaver MJ
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Patients believe that medical marijuana is a valid treatment and that it does have a role in reducing postinjury and postoperative pain.
Patterns and correlates of medical cannabis use for pain among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy
Nugent SM et al.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Cannabis use in pain patients was associated with a higher risk for opioid misuse
Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort.
Baron EP, Lucas P, Eades J, Hogue O
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Pain patients often substitute opioids with cannabis
Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of chronic pain with medical cannabis.
Bellnier T, Brown GW, Ortega TR.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis reduces pain and increases the quality of life in pain patients
Perioperative Patient Beliefs Regarding Potential Effectiveness of Marijuana (Cannabinoids) for Treatment of Pain: A Prospective Population Survey
Khelemsky Y et al.
2017
Cannabis
Survey
More than 80% of patients believe that cannabis may reduce pain
Patient Perceptions of the Use of Medical Marijuana in the Treatment of Pain After Musculoskeletal Trauma: A Survey of Patients at 2 Trauma Centers in Massachusetts
Heng, Marilyn et al.
2017
Cannabis;Other cannabinoids
Survey
Trauma patients find relief from a treatment with cannabis according to a survey
Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Chronic Pain Caused by Different Etiopathogenesis.
Gatti A, Lazzari M, Gianfelice V, Di Paolo A, Sabato E, Sabato AF.
2012
Other cannabinoids
Open study
Significant pain relief with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)
Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS.
2006
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis produced improvements in pain and sleep
Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever.
Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M, Evans F
1997
Cannabis
Controlled study
reduction of need for morphin
Qualifying Conditions Of Medical Cannabis License Holders In The United States.
Boehnke KF, Gangopadhyay S, Clauw DJ, Haffajee RL.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Chronic pain is the main reason for the medical use of cannabis in the USA
Reduction of Benzodiazepine Use in Patients Prescribed Medical Cannabis
Purcell C.,Davis A., Moolman N.,Taylor S.N.
2019
Cannabis
Open study
Medical cannabis users reduce their intake of benzodiazepines
Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.
Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA.
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis is effective in reducing pain and sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis related central neuropathic pain
Randomised controlled trial of cannabis based medicinal extracts (CBME) in central neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis.
Young CA, Rog DJ
2003
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant reduction in pain
Randomised Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Cannabis Based Medicinal Product (Sativex) in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Depression is a Major Confounding Factor.
Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
No difference between cannabis extract and placebo.
Self-Reported Effectiveness and Safety of Trokie® Lozenges: A Standardized Formulation for the Buccal Delivery of Cannabis Extracts.
Crowley K, de Vries ST, Moreno-Sanz G.
2018
Cannabis
Open study
Cannabis lozenges reduce pain in an observational study
Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Corey-Bloom J, Wolfson T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte TD, Bentley H, Gouaux B.
2012
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity and pain.
Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
de Vries M, van Rijckevorsel DC, Vissers KC, Wilder-Smith OH, van Goor H(; Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group
2015
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No effect of a single low dose of THC on abdominal pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis in clinical study.
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial.
Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis improved pain and sleep quality.
Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D.
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant improvement in pain by cannabis
Substitution of medical cannabis for pharmaceutical agents for pain, anxiety, and sleep
Piper BJ et al.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Patients who use cannabis reduce their use in medications for pain, anxiety, migraine and sleep disorders
Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.
Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH.
2009
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant pain relief with cannabis.
Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Abrams DI, Jay CA, Vizoso H, Shade SB, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham M, Petersen K
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Smoked cannabis is effective in reducing HIV-related neuropathic pain
Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine.
Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M.
2006
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
There was a synergistic effect between THC and morphine on the affective component of pain but not on the sensory component
Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study.
Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis did not reduce pain
The relationship of endocannabinoidome lipid mediators with pain and psychological stress in women with fibromyalgia - a case control study
Stensson N, Ghafouri N, Ernberg M, Mannerkorpi K, Kosek E, Gerdle B, Ghafouri B
2018
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Fibromyalgia is associated with increased blood levels of endocannabinoids
The Consumption of Cannabis by Fibromyalgia Patients in Israel.
Habib G, Avisar I.
2018
Cannabis
Survey
Many patients with fibromyalgia profit from a treatment with cannabis according to survey
Single dose delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic pancreatitis patients: analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability
de Vries M, van Rijckevorsel DC, Vissers KC, Wilder-Smith OH, van Goor H(; Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group
2015
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
No effect of a single low dose of THC on abdominal pain resulting from chronic pancreatitis in clinical study.
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial.
Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP.
2010
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis improved pain and sleep quality.
Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D.
2007
Cannabis
Controlled study
Significant improvement in pain by cannabis
Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine.
Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M.
2006
Delta-9-THC
Controlled study
There was a synergistic effect between THC and morphine on the affective component of pain but not on the sensory component
Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study.
Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H
2005
Cannabis
Controlled study
Cannabis did not reduce pain
The prescription of medical cannabis by a transitional pain service to wean a patient with complex pain from opioid use following liver transplantation: a case report.
Meng H, Hanlon JG, Katznelson R, Ghanekar A, McGilvray I, Clarke H.
2015
Cannabis
Uncontrolled case report
The use of cannabis reduced opioid consumption
The relationship of endocannabinoidome lipid mediators with pain and psychological stress in women with fibromyalgia - a case control study
Stensson N, Ghafouri N, Ernberg M, Mannerkorpi K, Kosek E, Gerdle B, Ghafouri B
2018
Other cannabinoids
Controlled study
Fibromyalgia is associated with increased blood levels of endocannabinoids
The Consumption o